Content Collections

Added in: astro@2.0.0 New

Content collections are the best way to work with Markdown and MDX in any Astro project. Content collections are a feature of Astro that help manage your content files in a project. Collections help to organize your content, validate your frontmatter, and provide automatic TypeScript type-safety for all of your content.

A content collection is any directory inside the reserved src/content project directory, such as src/content/newsletter and src/content/blog. Only content collections are allowed inside the src/content directory. This directory cannot be used for anything else.

A content entry is any piece of content stored inside of your content collection directory. Content entries are stored as either Markdown (.md) or MDX (.mdx) files. You can use any filename you want, but we recommend using a consistent naming scheme (lower-case, dashes instead of spaces) to make it easier to find and organize your content.

  • src/content/
    • newsletter/ the “newsletter” collection
      • week-1.md a collection entry
      • week-2.md a collection entry
      • week-3.md a collection entry

Once you have a collection, you can start querying your content using Astro’s built-in content APIs.

Astro stores important metadata for content collections in an .astro directory in your project. No action is needed on your part to maintain or update this directory. You are encouraged to ignore it entirely while working in your project.

The .astro directory will be updated for you automatically anytime you run the astro dev, astro build commands. You can run astro sync at any time to update the .astro directory manually.

Organizing with multiple collections

Section titled Organizing with multiple collections

If two files represent different kinds of content (e.g. a blog post and an author profile), they most likely belong in different collections. This is important because many features (frontmatter validation, automatic TypeScript type-safety) require that all entries in a collection share a similar frontmatter structure.

If you find yourself working with different types of content, you should create multiple collections to represent each type. You can create as many different collections in your project as you’d like.

  • src/content/
    • newsletter/
      • week-1.md
      • week-2.md
      • week-3.md
    • authors/ split different content types into new collections
      • grace-hopper.md
      • alan-turing.md
      • batman.md

Organizing with subdirectories

Section titled Organizing with subdirectories

A content collection is always a top-level folder inside of the src/content/ directory. You cannot nest one collection inside of another. However, you can use subdirectories to organize your content within a collection.

For example, you can use the following directory structure to organize i18n translations within a single docs collection. When you query this collection, you’ll be able to filter the result by language using the file path.

  • src/content/
    • docs/ this collection uses subdirectories to organize by language
      • en/
      • es/
      • de/

To get the most out of your content collections, create a src/content/config.ts file in your project (.js and .mjs extensions are also supported). This is a special file that Astro will automatically load and use to configure your content collections.

src/content/config.ts
// 1. Import utilities from `astro:content`
import { defineCollection } from 'astro:content';
// 2. Define your collection(s)
const blogCollection = defineCollection({ /* ... */ });
// 3. Export a single `collections` object to register your collection(s)
//    This key should match your collection directory name in "src/content"
export const collections = {
  'blog': blogCollection,
};

If you do not already extend Astro’s strict or strictest recommended TypeScript settings in your tsconfig.json file, you may need to update your tsconfig.json to enable strictNullChecks.

tsconfig.json
{
  // Note: No change needed if you use "astro/tsconfigs/strict" or "astro/tsconfigs/strictest"
  "extends": "astro/tsconfigs/base",
  "compilerOptions": {
    "strictNullChecks": true
  }
}

Schemas enforce consistent frontmatter within a collection. A schema guarantees that your frontmatter exists in a predictable form when you need to reference or query it. If any file violates its collection schema, Astro will provide a helpful error to let you know.

Schemas also power Astro’s automatic TypeScript typings for your content. When you define a schema for your collection, Astro will automatically generate and apply a TypeScript interface to it. The result is full TypeScript support when you query your collection, including property autocompletion and type-checking.

To create your first content schema, create a src/content/config.ts file if one does not already exist (.js and .mjs extensions are also supported). This file should:

  1. Import the proper utilities from astro:content.
  2. Define each collection that you’d like to validate with a schema.
  3. Export a single collections object to register your collections.
src/content/config.ts
// 1. Import utilities from `astro:content`
import { z, defineCollection } from 'astro:content';
// 2. Define a schema for each collection you'd like to validate.
const blogCollection = defineCollection({
  schema: z.object({
    title: z.string(),
    tags: z.array(z.string()),
    image: z.string().optional(),
  }),
});
// 3. Export a single `collections` object to register your collection(s)
export const collections = {
  'blog': blogCollection,
};

You can use defineCollection() as many times as you want to create multiple schemas. All collections must be exported from inside the single collections object.

src/content/config.ts
export const collections = {
  'blog': defineCollection({ /* ... */ }),
  'newsletter': defineCollection({ /* ... */ }),
  'profile-authors': defineCollection({ /* ... */ }),
};

As your project grows, you are also free to reorganize your codebase and move logic out of the src/content/config.ts file. Defining your schemas separately can be useful for reusing schemas across multiple collections and sharing schemas with other parts of your project.

src/content/config.ts
// 1. Import your utilities and schemas
import { defineCollection } from 'astro:content';
import {blogSchema, newsletterSchema} from '../schemas';
// 2. Define your collections
const blogCollection = defineCollection({ schema: blogSchema });
const newsletterCollection = defineCollection({ schema: newsletterSchema });
// 3. Export multiple collections to register them
export const collections = {
  'blog': blogCollection,
  'newsletter': newsletterCollection,
};

Using third-party collection schemas

Section titled Using third-party collection schemas

You can import collection schemas from anywhere, including external npm packages. This can be useful when working with themes and libraries that provide their own collection schemas for you to use.

src/content/config.ts
import {blogSchema} from 'my-blog-theme';
const blogCollection = defineCollection({ schema: blogSchema });
// Export the blog collection, using an external schema from 'my-blog-theme'
export const collections = {
  'blog': blogCollection,
};

Astro uses Zod to power its content schemas. With Zod, Astro is able to validate every file’s frontmatter within a collection and provide automatic TypeScript types when you go to query content from inside your project.

To use Zod in Astro, import the z utility from "astro:content". This is a re-export of the Zod library, and it supports all of the features of Zod. See Zod’s README for complete documentation on how Zod works and what features are available.

// Example: A cheatsheet of many common Zod datatypes
import { z, defineCollection } from 'astro:content';

defineCollection({
  schema: z.object({
    isDraft: z.boolean(),
    title: z.string(),
    sortOrder: z.number(),
    image: z.object({
      src: z.string(),
      alt: z.string(),
    }),
    author: z.string().default('Anonymous'),
    language: z.enum(['en', 'es']),
    tags: z.array(z.string()),
    // An optional frontmatter property. Very common!
    footnote: z.string().optional(),
    // Convert a standard date-string into a `Date` object
    publishDate: z.string().transform(str => new Date(str)),
    // Advanced: Validate that the string is also an email
    authorContact: z.string().email(),
    // Advanced: Validate that the string is also a URL
    canonicalURL: z.string().url(),
  })
})

Every content entry generates a URL-friendly slug property from its file id. The slug is used to query the entry directly from your collection. It is also useful when creating new pages and URLs from your content.

You can override an entry’s generated slug by adding your own slug property to the file frontmatter. This is similar to the “permalink” feature of other web frameworks. "slug" is a special, reserved property name that is not allowed in your custom collection schema and will not appear in your entry’s data property.

---
title: My Blog Post
slug: my-custom-slug/supports/slashes
---
Your blog post content here.

Astro provides two functions to query a collection and return one (or more) content entries: getCollection() and getEntryBySlug().

import { getCollection, getEntryBySlug } from 'astro:content';
// Get all entries from a collection. Requires the name of the collection as an argument.
const allBlogPosts = await getCollection('blog');
// Get a single entry from a collection. Requires the name of the collection and the entry's slug as arguments.
const oneBlogPost = await getEntryBySlug('blog', 'enterprise');

Both functions return content entries as defined by the CollectionEntry type.

getCollection() takes an optional “filter” callback that allows you to filter your query based on an entry’s id, slug, or data (frontmatter) properties.

You can use this to filter by any content criteria you like. For example, you can filter by frontmatter properties like draft to prevent any draft blog posts from publishing to your blog:

// Example: Filter content entries with `draft: true` frontmatter
import { getCollection } from 'astro:content';
const draftBlogEntries = await getCollection('blog', ({ data }) => {
  return data.draft !== true;
});

The filter argument also supports filtering by nested directories within a collection. Since the id includes the full nested path, you can filter by the start of each id to only return items from a specific nested directory:

// Example: Filter entries by sub-directory in the collection
import { getCollection } from 'astro:content';
const englishDocsEntries = await getCollection('docs', ({ id }) => {
  return id.startsWith('en/');
});

Using content in Astro templates

Section titled Using content in Astro templates

Once you have queried your collection entries, you can access each entry directly inside of your Astro component template. This lets you to render HTML for things like links to your content (using the content slug) or information about your content (using the data property).

For information about rendering your content to HTML, see Rendering Content to HTML below.

src/pages/index.astro
---
import { getCollection } from 'astro:content';
const blogEntries = await getCollection('blog');
---
<ul>
  {blogEntries.map(blogPostEntry => (
    <li>
      <a href={`/my-blog-url/${blogPostEntry.slug}`}>{blogPostEntry.data.title}</a>
      <time datetime={blogPostEntry.data.publishedDate.toISOString()}>
        {blogPostEntry.data.publishedDate.toDateString()}
      </time>
    </li>
  ))}
</ul>

A component can also pass an entire content entry as a prop.

If you do this, you can use the CollectionEntry utility to correctly type your components props using TypeScript. This utility takes a string argument that matches the name of your collection schema, and will inherit all of the properties of that collection’s schema.

src/components/BlogCard.astro
---
import type { CollectionEntry } from 'astro:content';
interface Props {
  post: CollectionEntry<'blog'>;
}

// `post` will match your 'blog' collection schema type
const { post } = Astro.props;
---

Once queried, you can render a collection entry to HTML using the entry render() function property. Calling this function gives you access to rendered content and metadata, including both a <Content /> component and a list of all rendered headings.

src/pages/render-example.astro
---
import { getEntryBySlug } from 'astro:content';
const entry = await getEntryBySlug('blog', 'post-1');
const { Content, headings } = await entry.render();
---
<p>Written by: {entry.data.author}</p>
<Content />

Generating Routes from Content

Section titled Generating Routes from Content

Content collections are stored outside of the src/pages/ directory. You will need to create a new dynamic route to generate HTML pages from your collection entries. Your dynamic route will map the incoming request param (ex: Astro.params.slug in src/pages/blog/[slug].astro) to fetch the correct entry inside a collection.

The exact method for generating routes will depend on your build output mode: ‘static’ (the default) or ‘server’ (for SSR).

Building for static output (default)

Section titled Building for static output (default)

If you are building a static website (Astro’s default behavior), you would use the getStaticPaths() function to create multiple pages from a single src/pages/ component during your build.

Call getCollection() inside of getStaticPaths() to query your content. Then, create your new URL paths using the slug property of each content entry.

src/pages/posts/[slug].astro
---
import { getCollection } from 'astro:content';
// 1. Generate a new path for every collection entry
export async function getStaticPaths() {
  const blogEntries = await getCollection('blog');
  return blogEntries.map(entry => ({
    params: { slug: entry.slug }, props: { entry },
  }));
}
// 2. When it's time to render, you can get the entry directly from the prop
const { entry } = Astro.props;
const { Content } = await entry.render();
---
<h1>{entry.data.title}</h1>
<Content />

This will generate a new page for every entry in the blog collection. For example, an entry at src/content/blog/hello-world.md will have a slug of hello-world, and therefore its final URL will be /posts/hello-world/.

Building for server output (SSR)

Section titled Building for server output (SSR)

If you are building a dynamic website (using Astro’s SSR support), you are not expected to generate any paths ahead-of-time during the build. Instead, your page should examine the request (using Astro.request or Astro.params) to find the slug on-demand, and then fetch it using getEntryBySlug().

src/pages/posts/[slug].astro
---
import { getEntryBySlug } from 'astro:content';
// 1. Get the slug from the incoming server request
const { slug } = Astro.params;
// 2. Query for the entry directly using the request slug
const entry = await getEntryBySlug('blog', slug);
// 3. (Optional) render the entry to HTML in the template
const { Content } = await entry.render();
---
<h1>{entry.data.title}</h1>
<Content />

Migrating from File-Based Routing

Section titled Migrating from File-Based Routing

This guide shows you how to convert an existing Astro project with Markdown files in the src/pages/ folder to content collections. It uses the Build a Blog tutorial’s finished project as an example.

  1. Upgrade to Astro v2.0 or later, and upgrade all integrations to their latest versions.

  2. Set up TypeScript for content collections.

  3. Create at least one collection (folder in src/content/) and move your Markdown and MDX pages from src/pages/ into these subdirectories of src/content/. Collections work best when all files in the same collection have similar frontmatter properties. So, choose your new folder structure to reflect similar types of pages.

    For example, to migrate the blog posts in the tutorial, move the contents of src/pages/posts/ to src/content/posts/.

  4. Create a src/content/config.ts file and define a schema for each content type. For the blog, we only have one content type, posts:

    src/content/config.ts
    // Import utilities from `astro:content`
    import { z, defineCollection } from "astro:content";
    // Define a schema for each collection you'd like to validate.
    const postsCollection = defineCollection({
        schema: z.object({
          title: z.string(),
          pubDate: z.date(),
          description: z.string(),
          author: z.string(),
          image: z.object({
            url: z.string(),
            alt: z.string()
          }),
          tags: z.array(z.string())
        })
    });
    // Export a single `collections` object to register your collection(s)
    export const collections = {
      posts: postsCollection,
    };
  5. Generate routes from your collections. Inside a collection, Markdown and MDX files no longer automatically become pages using Astro’s file-based routing, so you must generate the pages yourself.

    For the tutorial, create a src/pages/posts/[...slug].astro. This page will use dynamic routing and to generate a page for each collection entry.

    This page will also need to query your collection to fetch page slugs and make the page content available to each route.

    Render your post <Content /> within the layout for your Markdown or MDX pages. This allows you to specify a common layout for all of your posts.

    src/pages/posts/[...slug].astro
    ---
    import { getCollection } from 'astro:content';
    import MarkdownPostLayout from '../../layouts/MarkdownPostLayout.astro';
    
    export async function getStaticPaths() {
      const blogEntries = await getCollection('posts');
      return blogEntries.map(entry => ({
        params: { slug: entry.slug }, props: { entry },
      }));
    }
    
    const { entry } = Astro.props;
    const { Content } = await entry.render();
    ---
    <MarkdownPostLayout frontmatter={entry.data}>
      <Content />
    </MarkdownPostLayout>
  6. Remove the layout definition in each individual post’s frontmatter. Your content is now wrapped in a layout when rendered, and this property is no longer needed.

    src/content/post-1.md
    ---
    layout: ../../layouts/MarkdownPostLayout.astro
    title: 'My First Blog Post'
    pubDate: 2022-07-01
    ...
    ---
  7. Replace Astro.glob() with getCollection() to fetch content and metadata from your Markdown files. You will also need to update references to the returned post object, since you will now find your frontmatter values on the data property.

    The blog index page in the tutorial lists a card for each post. This becomes:

    src/pages/blog.astro
    ---
    import { getCollection } from "astro:content";
    import BaseLayout from "../layouts/BaseLayout.astro";
    import BlogPost from "../components/BlogPost.astro";
    
    const pageTitle = "My Astro Learning Blog";
    const allPosts = await getCollection("posts");
    ---
    
    <BaseLayout pageTitle={pageTitle}>
      <p>This is where I will post about my journey learning Astro.</p>
      <ul>
        {
          allPosts.map((post) => (
            <BlogPost url={"/posts/" + post.slug} title={post.data.title} />
          ))
        }
      </ul>
    </BaseLayout> 

    The tutorial blog project also dynamically generates a page for each tag. This page now becomes:

    src/pages/tags/[tag].astro
    ...
    export async function getStaticPaths() {
      const allPosts = await getCollection("posts");
      const uniqueTags = [...new Set(allPosts.map((post) => post.data.tags).flat())];
    
      return uniqueTags.map((tag) => {
        const filteredPosts = allPosts.filter((post) =>
          post.data.tags.includes(tag)
        );
        return {
          params: { tag },
          props: { posts: filteredPosts },
        };
      });
    }
    ...

    The same logic appears in the tag index page, which becomes:

    src/pages/tags/index.astro
    ---
    import { getCollection } from "astro:content";
    import BaseLayout from "../../layouts/BaseLayout.astro";
    const allPosts = await getCollection("posts");
    const tags = [...new Set(allPosts.map((post) => post.data.tags).flat())];
    const pageTitle = "Tag Index";
    ---
    ...

    Lastly, the tutorial blog project includes an RSS feed. This file must also use getCollection and use the data object:

    src/pages/rss.xml.js
    import rss from "@astrojs/rss";
    import { getCollection } from "astro:content";
    
    export async function get() {
      const posts = await getCollection('posts');
      return rss({
        title: 'Astro Learner | Blog',
        description: 'My journey learning Astro',
        site: 'https://my-blog-site.netlify.app',
        items: posts.map((post) => ({
          title: post.data.title,
          pubDate: post.data.pubDate,
          description: post.data.description,
          link: `/posts/${post.slug}/`,
        })),
        customData: `<language>en-us</language>`,
      });
    }

For the full example of the blog tutorial using content collections, see the Content Collections branch of the tutorial repo.

Modifying Frontmatter with Remark

Section titled Modifying Frontmatter with Remark

Astro supports remark or rehype plugins that modify your frontmatter directly. You can access this modified frontmatter inside of a content entry by using the remarkPluginFrontmatter property returned from render():

---
import { getEntryBySlug } from 'astro:content';
const blogPost = await getEntryBySlug('blog', 'post-1');
const { remarkPluginFrontmatter } = await blogPost.render();
---
<!-- 
  This example assumes `readingTime` was injected by a remark plugin.
  See our "reading time" example for more details:
  https://docs.astro.build/en/guides/markdown-content/#example-calculate-reading-time
-->
<p>{blogPost.data.title}{remarkPluginFrontmatter.readingTime}</p>

The remark and rehype pipelines only runs when your content is rendered, which explains why remarkPluginFrontmatter is only available after you call render() on your content entry. In contrast, getCollection() and getEntryBySlug() cannot return these values directly because they do not render your content.